Bad diet is the most common reason for excess fat. A number of fat cells (adipocytes) remains the same, while they just grow is size. Excess fat deposits appear both locally and generally.

Growth of adipocytes for local fat deposits is genetically programmed, thus these areas will still save their shape even after a drastic weight loss. These are perfect candidates for liposuction. There are so called fat traps – body parts with clear borders and when fat deposits in these areas, then the body shape is visible changed. For example, outer thigs and hips are among these traps. Diffusive and local variation is different from the first one as there are no clear borders and a switching between excess and normal fat is smoother. “Undulating lipodystrophy”, commonly known as cellulite, is a subcutaneous tissue disorder, not the “orange peel” that women see on their hips. Adipocytes are able to stretch, while connective-tissue intersections between them can’t – that’s what causes such bulging and dimpled skin.

Generalized type is called obesity. Obesity is a disease that is treated conservatively by correcting the diet, increasing physical activities, taking lipid lowering drugs, correcting an endocrine profile. Obesity might be caused by numerous diseases, so a patient must consult a gastroenterologist, endocrinologist and other specialists.

Going upside down, liposuction is performed on cheeks and chin, chest, arms, belly, hips and thighs. Hips and things plastics is the most popular among women, belly plastic – among men. The reason for it is that fat deposits differently for both genders affected by androgens and estrogens – male and female sex hormones correspondingly. Male-type obesity includes fat deposits on shoulders, chest and belly. Belly is the largest area in this case, while such a body shape is called an “apple”. Female-type obesity includes fat deposits on hips, thigs, and lower part of the belly. This type of a body shape is called a “pear”.

Implications

Liposuction is performed on patients with local type of fat deposits. The plastic surgery is possible as an addition to the major conservative treatment for patients with a generalized form. Liposuction can also be performed along with such surgeries as abdominalplasty (tummy tuck) and reductional mammoplasty (breast reduction).

Contra-indications

  1. ARVI, ARD;
  2. Acute exacerbation of a chronic respiratory or cardiovascular disease;
  3. Critical performance status (critical cardiac, respiratory, hepatic, kidney failure);
  4. coagulation failure.

Anyway, a decision on the surgery is taken on an individual basis by your surgeon. An additional examination and consult of specialized doctors are prescribed if needed.

Liposuction procedure

A surgeon performs the following steps at this procedure:

  1. A small incision is made in the skin so that an end of a cannula can reach to the end of the liposuction area.
  2. One area needs at least two incisions to treat the area in two perpendicular directions.
  3. The treatment intensity must be higher in the central area and get less going to the rims to make a smooth transition to the parts with normal fat layer.
  4. A surgeon uses a cannula of 4-6 mm in diameter for belly and thigs liposuction, and a thinner one of 2-3 mm for face liposuction.
  5. A cannula must move strictly in a perpendicular direction to the body surface so that it doesn’t touch any muscles lying underneath, it must go 0.5-1 cm inside so that it doesn’t do damage to the skin blood supply.

There are several ways of a liposuction procedure. In the last century, liposuction was made using a “dry” method on the unaltered tissue but it was very traumatic and was often followed by significant blood loss, so they had to find safer techniques for this procedure. Nowadays tumescent liposuction is the most effective and affordable method when special fluid is injected into the subcutaneous fat, which goal is to “dissolute” the fat, make it easier to suck and narrow blood vessels to eliminate blooding.

Post-op rehabilitation

Both these techniques are finished with applying cosmetic stitches and special compression garments. The garments are used to prevent swelling, suture line disruption, skin tightening and activating of recovery processes. One must take them off only when taking shower during the first, generally a patient must wear them for 1-2 months depending on the size of liposuction.

MEDICAL TESTS required for the surgery:

  1. Complete blood count + blood platelets + coagulability (valid for 10 days)
  2. Blood type, Rh factor
  3. Coagulogram (valid for 10 days)
  4. Urine test (valid for 10 days)
  5. RWblood test (valid for 1 month) 
  6. Fluorography (valid for 12 months)
  7. Blood tests for hepatitis B, C (valid for 1 month)
  8. Biochemical blood test (total protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, chlorine, cholesterol, BUN, creatinin, glucose, TB, DB, AST, ALT, chlorides) (valid for 10 days)
  9. ECG with a breakdown (statement of a cardiologist if needed) (valid for 1 month)
  10. Statements of narrow specialists (endocrinologist, cardiologist, therapist, etc. upon readings)(valid for 14 days)
  11. Statement of a therapist for patients older than 50 years (valid for 14 days)
  12. In case of chronical diseases – an abstract of outpatient medical record with a statement of a therapist (valid for 14 days)
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