Symptoms of sinusitis

A human has 4 pairs of paranasal sinuses – maxillary, frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoidal sinuses. Some specific symptoms are characteristic to deficit of each of them. Maxillitis, maxillary sinusitis, or is most commonly met as in this case an anastomosis with a nose is situated above the sinus making it harder to clean itself.

Generally speaking, one suffers from stuffiness and purulent discharge from the nose, headaches, increased body temperature, pain in the inflamed sinuses projection that get worse when touched. It can lead to such complications as pyophthalmia, meningitis and brain abscess, osteomyelitis, dental problems if not treated.

Acute sinusitis treatment

Sinusitis is considered to be acute if it lasts for less than 12 weeks and a number of episodes doesn’t exceed 4 per year. The treatment has 2 goals in this case – to eliminate a causative agent and recover a drainage function of the sinus. Anti-infective drugs are prescribed for sinusitis caused by bacteria. Inhibitor-protected penicillins (Amoxiclav), cephalosporins (Cefamed) are used in most cases, macrolides (Doramycin), fluoroquinolones are less commonly used. The antibiotic therapy course lasts for 7-14 days depending on a severity of acute treatment. It’s recommended to use one medicine, and if there is no positive dynamics within 72 hours after the start of the treatment, then the antibiotic is changed.

A puncture is performed to insert antiseptic into the sinus and extract purulent matter. This operation is commonly used for maxillary sinusitis. Anesthetic medicine and decongestants are applied on the mucous membrane before the puncture to constrict vessels and decongest swelling.

The treatment of acute sinusitis also includes vasoconstricting nasal drops (Nazol, Naphtyzin) for opening anastomoses between the sinus and nasal cavity and its better aspiration. Pain killers and paracetamol can be additionally prescribed to decrease a body temperature. Physiotherapeutic procedures include UHF, sun wave lamps, diathermy, however, they are recommended when an acute period is over, at the final stage of the disease, closer to recovery.

Chronic sinusitis treatment

Chronic sinusitis is diagnosed if the disease lasts for more than 12 weeks or a number of episodes exceeds 4 per year. The therapy includes antibiotics in case of an aggravation, as well as antiseptic washing of the sinus depending on a causative agent’s sensitivity. If suppuration in the sinus is too thick, then mucolytic agents (ACC, etc.) are used to dilute it. Vasoconstricting drops can be additionally subscribed. Physiotherapeutic procedures include quartz treatment, diathermy, electrophoresis with potassium iodide or lidocaine solutions.

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FSS) is performed when conservative treatment is not effective. A doctor examines anastomoses of impaired sinuses with endoscopic equipment, finds anatomic defects that led to the disease. Then they restore the anatomy and widen up the sinuses anastomoses using modern shaver equipment. Recovery of the anatomy leads to recovery of paranasal sinus functions. If a patient with chronic sinusitis has a deviated septum, polyps, middle nasal concha hypertrophy, then a corresponding surgery might be performed to correct these conditions.

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