Characteristics of a fibroadenoma of breast

A fibroadenoma is a type of nodal mastopathy. Mostly young women between 20-40 years can have fibroadenomas developed. As a rule, they’re rather small, up to 3-5 cm in diameter. Patients describe this tumor as a “ball”, as it’s small, smooth, round, painless, not sticking to surrounding tissues.

The exact causes of fibroadenoma development are not yet fully discovered. However, they are considered to develop due to hormone imbalance (after use of oral hormonal contraceptives, abortions, after diseases that change a hormonal state). For example, tumors depend on the estrogen level, as they tend to increase in size during pregnancy and lactation, but they don’t affect the pregnancy at all. The only thing is that a fibroadenoma can press the milk ducts, that will prevent milk pool and might cause mastitis.

Types of fibroadenomas and their diagnostics

There are several types of fibroadenomas:

  1. Intracanalicularm – a tumor is growing in the lumen of the mammary gland ducts.
  2. Pericanalicular – a tumor is growing from the connective tissue around the mammary gland ducts.
  3. Mixed – combines two previous types.
  4. Giant (gelatinous) – can increase a risk of breast cancer compared to the previous one. It also grows fast, hurts when palpated, can go with nipple discharge. If a tumor grows very large, the skin over it gets thin, turns blue, with clear venous lines.

A breast ultrasound along with palpation can be run to diagnose a fibroadenoma of breast. This test shows where the tumor is in the mammary gland, its size and form. If it’s rather small in size, then it might be confused with a cyst. Anyway, doctors perform a biopsy of the tumor and send the cells to a lab for microscopic examination to determine the type of fibroadenoma and if it’s cancerous. Women over 35-40 years can be ordered to have a mammogram where a fibroadenoma of breast will show as a clear thick round-shaped tumor with sharp outlines.

Treatment of a fibroadenoma of breast

Fibroadenomas can disappear on their own during the puberty period, however, it’s recommended to remove a tumor for people older than 18 years. It’s the best option as a fibroadenoma of breast doesn’t react to drug treatment.

There are two absolutely different variants of fibroadenoma removal – sector resection and enucleation. In case of a sector resection the tumor is removed along with the surrounding tissues when a doctor suspects a tumor to be cancerous. If a tumor is definitely benign, then enucleation is performed, meaning only the tumor is resected while healthy tissues stay untouched.

Enucleation is performed both under local and general anesthesia. Stitches are removed in 10 days after the surgery, until that time a patient should apply antiseptics on them. If an intradermic stitch was put, then the sutures will dissolve on their own and need no removal.

A histologic examination must be run after the surgery. It shows if the process is benign or malign, as well as defines a histologic type of the tumor for a final diagnosis.

Medical tests required for the surgery under the local anesthesia:

  1. Complete blood count (valid for 10 days)
  2. Blood type, Rh factor
  3. Coagulogram (valid for 10 days)
  4. RWblood test (valid for 1 month) 
  5. Biochemical blood test (total protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, chlorine, cholesterol, BUN, creatinin, glucose, TB, DB, AST, ALT, chlorides) (valid for 10 days)
  6. ECG with a breakdown (statement of a cardiologist if needed) (valid for 1 month)
  7. Breast ultrasound + examination of an onco mammologist (valid for 1 month)

Medical tests required for the surgery under the general anesthesia:

  1. Complete blood count + blood platelets + coagulability (valid for 10 days)
  2. Blood type, Rh factor
  3. Coagulogram (valid for 10 days)
  4. Urine test (valid for 10 days)
  5. RWblood test (valid for 1 month) 
  6. Fluorography (valid for 12 months)
  7. Blood tests for hepatitis B, C (valid for 1 month)
  8. Biochemical blood test (total protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, chlorine, cholesterol, BUN, creatinin, glucose, TB, DB, AST, ALT, chlorides) (valid for 10 days)
  9. ECG with a breakdown (statement of a cardiologist if needed) (valid for 1 month)
  10. Breast ultrasound + examination of an onco mammologist (valid for 1 month)
  11. Statements of narrow specialists (endocrinologist, cardiologist, therapist, etc. upon readings)(valid for 14 days)
  12. Statement of a therapist for patients older than 50 years (valid for 14 days)
  13. In case of chronical diseases – an abstract of outpatient medical record with a statement of a therapist (valid for 14 days)

A price for fibroadenoma resection surgery:

  • Under the local anesthesia including histologic sampling — 00 BYN (resection of any following fibroadenoma — 84.00BYN);
  • Under the general anesthesia including histologic sampling — 639,00 BYN (resection of any following fibroadenoma —84,00 BYN)

A price for an onco mammologist consult is 30.00 BYN.

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